The research article, The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering, by Courtney T. Byrd, Lisa M. Bedore, and Daniel Ramos was published earlier this month. Since the Bilingualism Research Lab, at the University of Illinois at Chicago, is also conducting research on the study of bilingualism we decided to contact one of the authors for more information. Courtney T. Byrd kindly agreed to give a brief summary of their article, stating that, “Researchers recently suggested bilingualism is a risk factor for stuttering. Our study suggests that the assumption that there is an increased risk is confounded by the critical overlap that exists in the disfluencies that we categorize as mazes and those we categorize as stuttering like disfluencies. Thus, we propose the risk is related to false positive diagnosis of stuttering as opposed to true positive risk of development. In this manuscript we also offer specific suggestions to enhance differential diagnosis of stuttering in Spanish-English bilinguals and monolingual English speakers.”
More information on their article: http://lshss.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1905885#.VBhJsk9DzTg.facebook
Researchers from MIT and several European universities have conducted studies on a type of gene, Foxp2, that may help humans with a key component of learning language. The researchers also believe that Foxp2 is one of several genes that has contributed to the abilities to generate and comprehend language, which only humans possess. The humanized gene was tested out on mice and demonstrated to provide improvements in their behavior as well as memory. The protein produced by the gene produces changes taking place in the brain, allowing it to adapt to speech and language acquisition. More research is necessary and is being conducted in order to see how Foxp2 interacts with other genes to produce its effects of learning and language.
Original article: http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/language-gene-0915
Several Standford researchers have decided to conduct a study, “Voices of California”, in Central California in order to fully understand how the community views itself, its region, the rest of the state and how that’s reflected in the way they speak. Penny Eckert, a professor of linguistics and anthropology at Standford University, focused the project primarily on California because of its rich diversity. Several participants were asked basic question about their life, memories and thoughts of Sacramento as well as the pronunciation for several words. The pronunciation would later be analyzed for vowel sound and word choice. Researchers have not yet analyzed all the data but one of the findings has demonstrated that in certain cities people’s pronunciation and word choice were more influenced by the South than those on California’s coast.
Original Article: http://www.mercurynews.com/education/ci_26505503/stanford-speech-study-heads-sacramento
Associate Professor Leher Singh, at the National University of Singapore conducted a study which looked at the effects of bilingualism in six-month-old infants. The study concluded that babies who are exposed to two languages have a better memory and are able to process information faster than monolingual infants. Infants have the capability to take on the challenges of bilingual acquisition as compared to adults. This long term study began in 2009 and was recently published in the journal Child Development in July of this year.
Original Article: http://www.straitstimes.com/news/singapore/education/story/babies-exposed-two-languages-show-better-memory-and-learning-ability-
For more information on the study : http://www.a-star.edu.sg/Media/News/Press-Releases/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/3300.aspx
In some regions code-switching has sometimes been discouraged among children. However, a study conducted by Yow Wei Quin, assistant professor at the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), demonstrates how this phenomenon is not at all bad. Children who spoke English and Mandarin were studied. The children’s speech competencies were measured in both languages. One of the findings demonstrated how the children who frequently code-switched between English and Mandarin were found to have a better command of the second language. They were able to express themselves better in Mandarin and possessed higher vocabulary. Assistant Professor Yow also expects to expand her research of switching between other mother tongue languages and measuring language competencies through the analysis of syntax. The Bilingualism Research Lab, at the University of Illinois at Chicago is one of the few labs conducting more research on this code-switching phenomenon. Findings similar to these should help parents encourage their children to code-switch between two languages.
Original Article: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/using-two-languages-in/1322760.html
Recently, York University professor Ellen Bialystok and her colleagues Kathleen F. Peets and Sylvain Moreno studied the development of metalinguistic awareness in children becoming bilingual in an immersion education program. Their study focused on whether children who attend immersion programs show the same kind of advantages in cognitive skills, as children who are early bilinguals. The authors concluded that the advantages previously reported for early bilingual children could already be detected in children learning another language in an immersion program.
Belgian scientists Anne-Catherine Nicolay and Martine Poncelet also examined the possible advantages in executive control that bilingual children show over monolinguals. Although, their findings demonstrated that the immersion children did better than their monolingual counterparts, there was a negative finding when it came to interference inhibition.
Similarly, Ellen Bialystok and Raluca Barac have written a paper on studies they conducted demonstrating that executive control performance improved with increased experience in a bilingual education environment.
Original Article: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/life-bilingual/201401/cognitive-advantages-second-language-immersion-education
Check out Ajit Narayanan’s TED Talk about his new app that allows users to communicate in any language.