Raising a Truly Bilingual Child

 

True bilingualism by Klass’ definition means the ability to speak two languages proficiently as a native. Something he believes is a struggle and only few can reach. He argues that competent bilingualism probably only exists in countries outside of the United States, because in the United States children aren’t exposed to other languages. Early exposure to other languages however, can offer certain advantages when it comes to facilitating the formation of sounds in those languages. One key point that Klass touches on is that a child’s natural language ability alone will not be enough for true bilingualism, a massive amount of person to person exposure of both languages and effort are required as well.  This is difficult to do in the United States because of its monolingual environment, Erika Hoff says.

The article touches base on how a stronger sense of a language can be achieved through different types of exposures, for instance through literature. Hoff argues that a child who is learning two languages will have a limited vocabulary in both when compared to a child only exposed to one language, meaning that it takes longer to acquire two languages than one. However, Hoff claims this is not a problem provided the child receives enough input. Still, Hoff defends that when it comes to two languages in the United States, English will outweigh the Spanish exposure and thus cause the speaker of both languages to become more proficient in English. Whatever the case may be, the earlier exposure a child receives the more native they will sound. Although true bilingualism can be rare, the skills a child learns along the way are very valuable as well as a great advantage and therefore should be pursued.

Full article:

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Upcoming Conference: GALA 13

GALA 13 will take place at the Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB), in Palma de Mallorca, Spain on September 7-9, 2017.

This conference takes place every other year, and it is attended by research mainly from Europe, but also from other parts of the world. The main objective of the conference is to provide a common space for researchers studying human language acquisition in all its manifestations: second language acquisition, bilingual and multilingual acquisition, acquisition of a heritage language, etc. Additionally, the conference also provides a common space for researchers working on pathologies that have or may have an effect on language acquisition.

Many interesting research projects will be shared in this conference, specially those from the keynote speakers João Costa (Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Anna Gavarró Algueró (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), Barbara Höhle (Universität Potsdam), and Natascha Müller (Bergische Universität Wuppertal).

Additional information can be found in the following link: http://www.uibcongres.org/GALA13/

 

English and German: Two languages, two ways of looking at the world

Do you speak more than one language? Does your worldview change when you use one or the other? A study by Panos Athanasopoulos (published in Psychological Science) examined how German/English bilinguals and also monolinguals responded to a number of questions in order to see how they perceived reality.

Bilingual participants were shown video clips of events with a motion in them (i.e. a woman walking towards a car or a man cycling towards the supermarket) and were then asked to describe the scenes. It is important to note that, according to Athanasopoulos, in general, monolingual German speakers tend to describe the action but also the goal of such action. So, they would say something like “A woman walks towards her car” or “a man cycles towards the supermarket”. Monolingual English speakers, however, will describe those scenes as “a woman is walking” or “a man is cycling”, without mentioning the goal of the action. Athanasopoulos explains that this is because the worldview assumed by German speakers is a holistic one (i.e. they tend to look at the event as a whole), whereas English speakers tend to zoom in on the event and focus only on the action.

So, how did German/English bilinguals perform? According to the researcher, “they seemed to switch between these perspectives based on the language context they were given the task in”. He also adds that these findings are in line with other research conducted on different language pairs that also looks that distinct behavior in bilinguals depending on the language of operation.

Do you feel like a different person when you speak each of your languages? Let us know in the comments.

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For more information about the study visit: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/apr/27/world-view-learn-another-language

 

Learning a second language as an adult

For a long time, experts have thought that learning a second language “successfully” was impossible for adults. However, a new study carried out at the University of California at Riverside has shown that “adults are capable of learning and processing a new language” like native speakers.

In this experiment, researchers looked at native English speakers who were learning Spanish as a second language. More specifically, they looked at how these speakers understood “sentences in Spanish that contained (…) aspects of Spanish grammar that do not exist in English”. Some errors were also introduced in order to see if participants could detect them. As mentioned above, the results showed that it is possible for adults to learn a second language like a native speaker.

To read the original article visit: https://ucrtoday.ucr.edu/45469

Students should learn second language to prevent dementia in later life

Learning a second language should be recommended to students in order to prevent dementia. Some studies have revealed that certain types of dementia appear five years later in bilinguals than in monolinguals. That is, “bilingual people have a cognitive reserve that delays the onset”. Professor Sorace recommends children to learn languages from age five until they finish university:“Languages should be a requirement for any kind of degree”.

Professor Sorace compared retired people who were doing an intensive course in Gaelic  with other active retired people. They found that in those who were doing a language course, the brain responded better than in monolinguals. That is, bilingual people had an improvement in cognitive functions. Therefore, they believe that education can protect people against developing dementia and highlight the importance of learning languages from childhood.

To read the original article visit: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/12156709/Students-should-learn-second-language-to-prevent-dementia-in-later-life.html

 

In this blog, we have presented several benefits of being bilingual. We have also shown that bilinguals’ brains behave somewhat differently (in a positive way) when compared to monolinguals’. In addition, in a fairly new experiment carried out by Jubin Abutalebi of the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, the relationship between being bilingual and a slower development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been studied.

They found that bilinguals develop AD slower than monolinguals, and the provide a possible explanation for that. First of all, in previous studies it has been shown that bilinguals with AD have more atrophy in the brain than monolinguals with the same disease. However, it seems that AD takes more time to develop in bilinguals’ brain because they have “better connectivity between intact neurons”. Abutalebi, however, mentions that “only those who really use the two languages are protected”. In any case, the findings in this study are undoubtedly crucial for future investigations.

Full article: http://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/being-bilingual-buffers-against-alzheimers-improving-connectivity

Being bilingual alters your brain. Here’s how

New benefits for bilinguals! A new study reveals that being bilingual can affect your brain by changing its structure. According to Judith F. Kroll,  bilinguals’ ability to retain two languages and to alternate between them has an effect on the reshaping of the brain’s network.

In a recent study, they analyzed 60 monolingual and 60 bilingual infants whose ages ranged between four-month old, eight-month old, and one-year old babies. They noticed that when someone was speaking, infants exposed to Spanish and Catalan looked at speaker’s mouth instead of their eyes. Infants that were only exposed to Spanish, on the other hand, looked at the mouth of speakers only when they were talking their native tongue.This study suggests that being bilingual improves their cognitive abilities because “babies who are listening to two languages [growing up] become attuned to those two languages right away. It’s not confusing them or messing them up developmentally—the opposite is true”.

To read the original article visit: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/02/how-being-bilingual-rewires-your-brain/?utm_content=bufferf1bc7&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer